Persian dating in los angeles

Style[ edit ] Camp scene from late in the classic period, with no frame. Majnun at top wearing orange spies on his beloved Layla standing in tent doorway The bright and pure colouring of the Persian miniature is one of its most striking features. Normally all the pigments used are mineral-based ones which keep their bright colours very well if kept in proper conditions, the main exception being silver, mostly used to depict water, which will oxidize to a rough-edged black over time.

Lighting is even, without shadows or chiaroscuro. Walls and other surfaces are shown either frontally, or as at to modern eyes an angle of about 45 degrees, often giving the modern viewer the unintended impression that a building is say hexagonal in plan. Buildings are often shown in complex views, mixing interior views through windows or "cutaways" with exterior views of other parts of a facade.

Costumes and architecture are always those of the time. More important figures may be somewhat larger than those around them, and battle scenes can be very crowded indeed. Great attention is paid to the background, whether of a landscape or buildings, and the detail and freshness with which plants and animals, the fabrics of tents, hangings or carpets, or tile patterns are shown is one of the great attractions of the form.

The dress of figures is equally shown with great care, although artists understandably often avoid depicting the patterned cloth that many would have worn. Animals, especially the horses that very often appear, are mostly shown sideways on; even the love-stories that constitute much of the classic material illustrated are conducted largely in the saddle, as far as the prince-protagonist is concerned.

Even when a scene in a palace is shown, the viewpoint often appears to be from a point some metres in the air. This is used in all the luxury manuscripts for the court that constitute the most famous Persian manuscripts, and the vertical format dictates many characteristics of the style.

There are often panels of text or captions inside the picture area, which is enclosed in a frame, eventually of several ruled lines with a broader band of gold or colour. The rest of the page is often decorated with dense designs of plants and animals in a muted grisaille , often gold and brown; text pages without miniatures often also have such borders. In later manuscripts, elements of the miniature begin to expand beyond the frame, which may disappear on one side of the image, or be omitted completely.

The withdrawal of Shah Tahmasp I from commissioning illustrated books in the s probably encouraged artists to transfer to these cheaper works for a wider circle of patrons.

Album miniatures usually showed a few figures on a larger scale, with less attention to the background, and tended to become drawings with some tints of coloured wash, rather than fully painted. In the example at right the clothes are fully painted, and the background uses the gold grisaille style earlier reserved for marginal decoration, as in the miniature at the head of the article.

Many were individual portraits, either of notable figures but initially rarely portraits of rulers , or of idealized beautiful youths. Others were scenes of lovers in a garden or picnics.

From about the middle of the 16th century these types of images became dominant, but they gradually declined in quality and originality and tended towards conventional prettiness and sentimentality. It was then twice updated in India c.

However the nature of the royal workshop remains unclear, as some manuscripts are recorded as being worked on in different cities, rulers often took artists with them on their travels, and at least some artists were able to work on private commissions. There were some highly placed amateur artists, including Shah Tahmasp I reigned , who was also one of the greatest patrons of miniatures. Persian artists were highly sought after by other Islamic courts, especially those of the Ottoman and Mughal Empires , whose own traditions of miniature were based on Persian painting but developed rather different styles.

In Mughal miniatures at least, a third artist might do just the faces. Then there might be the border paintings; in most books using them these are by far the largest area of painted material as they occur on text pages as well.

The miniatures in a book were often divided up between different artists, so that the best manuscripts represent an overview of the finest work of the period. The scribes or calligraphers were normally different people, on the whole regarded as having a rather higher status than the artists - their names are more likely to be noted in the manuscript.

Royal librarians probably played a significant role in managing the commissions; the extent of direct involvement by the ruler himself is normally unclear. The scribes wrote the main text first, leaving spaces for the miniatures, presumably having made a plan for these with the artist and the librarian. The book covers were also richly decorated for luxury manuscripts, and when they too have figurative scenes these presumably used drawings by the same artists who created the miniatures.

Paper was the normal material for the pages, unlike the vellum normally used in Europe for as long as the illuminated manuscript tradition lasted. The paper was highly polished, and when not given painted borders might be flecked with gold leaf. After a brief and high-flown introduction, "Petition from the most humble servants of the royal library, whose eyes are as expectant of the dust from the hooves of the regal steed as the ears of those who fast are for the cry of Allahu akbar All the painters are working on painting and tinting seventy-five tent-poles Mawlana Ali is designing a frontispiece illumination for the Shahnama.

His eyes were sore for a few days. The ancient Persian religion of Manichaeism made considerable use of images; not only was the founding prophet Mani c. Unfortunately, the Islamic suppression of the religion was so thorough that only tiny fragments of Manichean art survive. These no doubt influenced the continuing Persian tradition, but little can be said about how. It is also known that Sassanid palaces had wall-paintings, but only fragments of these have survived.

The traumatic Mongol invasion of onwards established the Ilkhanate as a branch of the Mongol Empire , and despite the huge destruction of life and property, the new court had a galvanising effect on book painting, importing many Chinese works and probably artists, with their long-established tradition of narrative painting. The Ilkhanids continued to migrate between summer and winter quarters, which together with other travels for war, hunting and administration, made the portable form of the illustrated book the most suitable vehicle for painting, as it also was for mobile European medieval rulers.

He established the Timurid dynasty , bringing a fresh wave of Chinese influence, who were replaced by the Black Sheep Turkmen in , followed by the White Sheep Turkmen from , who were in turn replaced by the Safavid dynasty by ; they ruled until After a chaotic period Nader Shah took control, but there was no long-lived dynasty until the Qajar dynasty , who ruled from to He was a key patron of the Herat school It was only in the 14th century that the practice began of commissioning illustrated copies of classic works of Persian poetry , above all the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi and the Khamsa of Nizami , which were to contain many of the finest miniatures.

Previously book illustration, of works in both Arabic and Persian, had been concentrated in practical and scientific treatises, often following at several removes the Byzantine miniatures copied when ancient Greek books were translated. There was a crisis in the s when Shah Tahmasp I , previously a patron on a large scale, ceased to commission works, apparently losing interest in painting. Some of his artists went to the court of his nephew Ibrahim Mirza , governor of Mashad from , where there was a brief flowering of painting until the Shah fell out with his nephew in , including a Haft Awrang , the "Freer Jami".

Other artists went to the Mughal court. Shiraz in the south, sometimes the capital of a sub-ruler, was a centre from the late 14th century, and Herat , now in Afghanistan , was important in the periods when it was controlled from Persia, especially when the Timurid prince Baysonqor was governor in the s; he was then the leading patron in Persia, commissioning the Baysonghor Shahnameh and other works.

Each centre developed its own style, which were largely reconciled and combined under the Safavids. Tabriz was the former capital of the Turkmen rulers, and in the early Safavid period the styles were gradually harmonized in works like the Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp.

It appears to be by Sultan Mohammad, whose later works in the manuscript show a style adapted to the court style of Bizhad. It is now in the British Museum. However, once influenced by the Chinese, Persian painters gained much more freedom through the Chinese traditions of "unrestricted space and infinite planes". Much of the Chinese influence in Persian art is probably indirect, transmitted through Central Asia.

There appear to be no Persian miniatures that are clearly the work of a Chinese artist or one trained in China itself. The most prestigious Chinese painting tradition, of literati landscape painting on scrolls, has little influence; instead the closest parallels are with wall-paintings and motifs such as clouds and dragons found in Chinese pottery, textiles, and other decorative arts. While very few traces now remain, Buddhist and Christian images were probably easily available to Persian artists at this period.

Some are inscribed with the name of the artist, sometimes as part of the picture itself, for example as if painted on tiles in a building, but more often as a note added on the page or elsewhere; where and when being often uncertain.

Because of the nature of the works, literary and historical references to artists, even if they are relied upon, usually do not enable specific paintings to be identified, though there are exceptions. In the next generation, Reza Abbasi worked in the Late Safavid period producing mostly album miniatures, and his style was continued by many later painters. Probably an early work by Sultan Mohammed , 20 Khusraw discovers Shirin bathing in a pool, a favourite scene, here from Poetry, wine and gardens are common elements in later works - Youth reading, by Reza Abbasi Prince Muhammad-Beik of Georgia - Reza Abbasi, A rare pure landscape, with a river, Tabriz?


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