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Bulletin of Marine Science. Bermuda Natural History Museum. The issue prior to July 14, had an inventory by Dr. Wolfgang Sterrer on the number of species at least 8, of flora and fauna then in Bermuda, of which 4, are marine and 3, are terrestrial. Endemic animals are shown below by name and description. Except for birds, no prior legislation existed. The new act called for a proactive approach to the protection of local species threatened with extinction, and their habitats.

Wildlife includes the Cahow, Longtail, White-eyed Vireo, Skink, turtles, whales, a species of snail, the tiny Cave Shrimp and other crustaceans. The Bermuda Protected Species Act allows for the listing of threatened species and recovery plans for active intervention, in order to enhance population levels.

Bermuda does not have alligators, badgers, buffalo, chipmunks, crocodiles, deer, ferrets, giraffes, hedgehogs, lions, moles, mongooses, moose, raccoons, skunks, snakes, squirrels, stoats, tigers, weasels or zebras. A recent attempt to bring in skunks for domestic purposes was defeated.

Animals are mostly imported originally or more recently, but a few are endemic or native. All the following were imported originally, except those shown otherwise Anoles The lizards, first seen in and recently spotted on the grounds of Aberfeldy Nursery in Paget, are suspected to have arrived from Florida. Popular as pets but aggressive breeders in the wild, the lizard, distinguished by ridges on its back, has proliferated in the southern United States.

According to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Bermuda has two distinct populations of brown anoles. I am not aware of the current range of this new lizard but I believe it is still confined within Pembroke and Paget parishes, so at the moment it is not coming into conflict with the remaining known skink populations.

However it is likely their range will expand and come into contact with known skink populations within a decade, if not sooner. Skinks are also at jeopardy from storms, as well as predation from other invasive species such as cats and rats. Antiguan anole, Aquet, introduced about Sometimes referred to as the Somerset Lizard.

Asian gecko Hemidactylus frenatus. Accidentally introduced to Bermuda in or thereabouts in cargo imports. Barbados anole, Anolis lenolis roachii, introduced about , sometimes referred to as the Warwick Lizard, up to 14 inches long and with a yellow-gold eye ring.

Jamaican Anole Anolis grahami , introduced in to control fruit flies which were damaging local crops, which changes color rapidly from blackish brown to green and blue. They have incurred a bad reputation from their diet of ladybirds. Mediterranean or Turkish gecko Hemidactylus turcicus. This species, originating from Cuba and the Bahamas, is one of the most widespread anoles outside of its native range, with large populations present throughout Florida and as far away as Hawaii and Singapore.

Unlike the previous anoles found on Bermuda, which are often found on trees and branches, this species lives much more on the ground. This means that if it spreads into an area where the critically endangered Bermudian skink is present then they may compete for food and habitat. Argentine ants Irodomyrmex humilus , numerous.

First imported to Bermuda in from Britain. Local honey is very expensive compared to imported varieties but is lovely. One colony can produce up to kg of honey. Local folklore says a teaspoon of Bermuda honey taken with tea is a powerful aphrodisiac. There are two honey flows a year, minor in June-July and major in September-October. In , Hurricane Fabian caused substantial damage to the local honey industry, just at the start of the September honey flow.

After it, no flowers were left from which bees could gather nectar. The effects of a hurricane linger for years while the vegetation recovers. In when Hurricane Emily swept over the island, the main honey flow from the Schinus sp. Since then, bees have been further troubled by disease. The effects on our environment especially on our agricultural crops and bee pollinated fruits could be catastrophic. In recent years, much attention has been focused on bees and their mysterious disappearance in areas of Europe and the United States.

In creating a bee friendly garden, select plants that attract bees. Not all lowers are attractive to bees and some are more attractive than others. Bees have a strong preference for purple, white and blue flowers, and some reds and oranges. Recommended for planting in the garden are bee-favorites cuphea Mexican heather , alyssum, pentas, lantana and synflowers. Try also herbs such as rosemary, thyme and mint or vegetables such as pumpkins and squashes.

Bees are attracted to all these plants particularly when several of the same are planted together. Also, let your lawn be diverse in type. Bees like to feed on clover in the lawn. An indigenous ant long thought extinct until re-discovered living in July by local college student Alex Lines, a Bermuda Aquarium Museum and Zoo intern.

While the African big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala , from tropical Africa, became the dominant ant species on the island in the early 20th century after being first recorded in , the Argentine ant Linepithema humile from subtropical South America quickly began to claim territory after arriving on the island in the s. However, a handful of battlegrounds remain.

In addition, I collected P megacephala in front of the Clocktower Mall and to the south end of the Glassworks Mall, two places occupied by L humile 14 years earlier, indicating a modest expansion of the P megacephala population on North Ireland Island. At the Newstead, I found the boundary between L humile and P megacephala territory, near the western edge of the property, essentially identical as 14 years earlier. At the Newstead, I collected in the same vial L humile and P megacephala workers from only a few metres apart; the ants immediately locked in battle, confirming their mutual intolerance.

Given that the same areas were searched in previous studies, it indicates that the species was a new arrival. It would be interesting to determine whether or not P megacephala can tolerate P navigans. They feared it had become a victim of invasive predators.

But now, around 40 years after its last sighting in the wild, a healthy colony of these snails turned up in October in the heart of Hamilton in a damp and overgrown alleyway. The discovery amazed conservationists in Bermuda. And steps are now being taken to protect the habitat and re-establish the uniquely Bermudian small snail on the Island. This is a unique genus of snail, found nowhere else in the world, for years thought it has been extinct. It seems that this small group has been protected by their urban isolation.

The fact that there was so much concrete around them probably saved them from the predators that is believed to have killed the vast majority of the population Island-wide. The last recorded sighting of this endemic land snail was made in the early s by Stephen J Gould. The well-known paleontologist had done his PhD as a young man on the Island and recorded them as being plentiful throughout the country. But when he returned to Bermuda in the early s their numbers appeared to have taken a dramatic plunge, to the point that he could no longer find one.

He came down here as a deckhand on a ship originally and was fascinated by the evolution that had happened to these snails in Bermuda. He returned to the Island to do his PhD on them. He was still working with these species in the late s and early s. But suddenly it seemed that the snails, which had once been plentiful, completely died out.

Dr Gould is not alive now to hear that this animal still remains in the wild. A survey conducted in by two US scientists in Bermuda could find no living trace of Poecilozonites bermudensis.

And later studies in , and seemed to confirm that the animal was extinct. Furthermore, it was discovered that the population of another smaller endemic snail, Poecilozonites circumfirmatus, was rapidly declining. As a result a lifeboat project was arranged and the much smaller snail was sent to London Zoo where it has been saved from extinction. Plans are now afoot to protect the colony of Poecilozonites bermudensis in Hamilton and look at possible spots to translocate the species around the Island to reestablish it.

An indigenous snail long thought extinct until re-discovered living in July by local college student Alex Lines, a Bermuda Aquarium Museum and Zoo intern. At one time years ago, they could be picked up by the bucketful to be ground up and burnt for lime and mortar. Two related endemic species, P. Bermuda is to find safe homes for two endangered native species of snails bred in captivity in Britain.

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources wants to put the snails on islands without major predators. Staff at the Department of Environment and Natural Resources are now identifying locations, all near-shore islands without major predators, to begin reintroducing those captive-bred land snails. Poecilozonites bermudensis was thought to be extinct until the species was rediscovered in a Hamilton alley in If a species completely disappears from Bermuda, at least there will be a few overseas that could be brought back to the island when conditions are more favourable for them.

Other organisations have one or two. Bermuda killifish were sent to the Vienna Zoological Gardens in and Chester Zoo received some in The Bermuda Biodiversity Project said there are two types of killifish in Bermuda that live in nine small, isolated ponds across the island. The spokeswoman added that Chester Zoo also took on Bermuda skinks in , which began breeding last year.

It was described as unique to Bermuda in by P. Pope, the Smithsonian herpetologist. Its fossil bones, dating back , years or more, have been found in local limestone caves. Now quite rare in most parishes, largely restricted to pockets of coast and isolated islands. An adult can grow up to seven inches long.

Sometimes referred to as the Somerset or Warwick lizard. It is a protected endangered species. It is quite different to those imported from the Caribbean.

Bermuda's Fauna Animals, birds, fish, insects, lizards, marine life, reefs, endemic and naturalized. By Keith Archibald Forbes (see About Us) exclusively for Bermuda Online. Advance information on Bermuda - from our files exclusively.. Animals on land. Grouper, the new social-club-meets-singles site A new dating service sets up dates where you take your mates with you. Sally Newall spills the .

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