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Attributive adjectives are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify; for example, happy is an attributive adjective in "happy people". In some languages, attributive adjectives precede their nouns; in others, they follow their nouns; and in yet others, it depends on the adjective, or on the exact relationship of the adjective to the noun.

In English, attributive adjectives usually precede their nouns in simple phrases, but often follow their nouns when the adjective is modified or qualified by a phrase acting as an adverb. Predicative adjectives are linked via a copula or other linking mechanism to the noun or pronoun they modify; for example, happy is a predicate adjective in "they are happy" and in "that made me happy. Predicative expression , Subject complement. Nominal adjectives act almost as nouns. One way this can happen is if a noun is elided and an attributive adjective is left behind.

In the sentence, "I read two books to them; he preferred the sad book, but she preferred the happy", happy is a nominal adjective, short for "happy one" or "happy book". Another way this can happen is in phrases like "out with the old, in with the new", where "the old" means, "that which is old" or "all that is old", and similarly with "the new".

In such cases, the adjective functions may function as a mass noun as in the preceding example. In English, it may also function as a plural count noun denoting a collective group, as in "The meek shall inherit the Earth", where "the meek" means "those who are meek" or "all who are meek".

Distribution[ edit ] Adjectives feature as a part of speech word class in most languages. In some languages, the words that serve the semantic function of adjectives are categorized together with some other class, such as nouns or verbs.

In the phrase "a Ford car", "Ford" is unquestionably a noun, but its function is adjectival: In some languages adjectives can function as nouns: As for "confusion" with verbs, rather than an adjective meaning "big", a language might have a verb that means "to be big", and could then use an attributive verb construction analogous to "big-being house" to express what English expresses as "big house".

Such an analysis is possible for the grammar of Standard Chinese , for example. Different languages do not always use adjectives in exactly the same situations. For example, where English uses to be hungry hungry being an adjective , Dutch , French , and Spanish use honger hebben, avoir faim, and tener hambre respectively literally "to have hunger", the words for "hunger" being nouns.

In languages which have adjectives as a word class, they are usually an open class ; that is, it is relatively common for new adjectives to be formed via such processes as derivation. However, Bantu languages are well known for having only a small closed class of adjectives, and new adjectives are not easily derived. Similarly, native Japanese adjectives i-adjectives are considered a closed class as are native verbs , although nouns an open class may be used in the genitive to convey some adjectival meanings, and there is also the separate open class of adjectival nouns na-adjectives.

Adverbs[ edit ] Many languages, including English, distinguish between adjectives, which qualify nouns and pronouns, and adverbs , which mainly modify verbs , adjectives, and other adverbs. Not all languages have exactly this distinction and many languages, including English, have words that can function as both.

For example, in English, fast is an adjective in "a fast car" where it qualifies the noun car , but an adverb in "he drove fast" where it modifies the verb drove. In Dutch and German , adjectives and adverbs are usually identical in form and many grammarians do not make the distinction, but patterns of inflection can suggest a difference: Eine kluge neue Idee.

Eine klug ausgereifte Idee. A cleverly developed idea. A German word like klug "clever ly " takes endings when used as an attributive adjective, but not when used adverbially. It also takes no endings when used as a predicative adjective: Whether these are distinct parts of speech or distinct usages of the same part of speech is a question of analysis. Determiner Linguists today distinguish determiners from adjectives, considering them to be two separate parts of speech or lexical categories , but formerly determiners were considered to be adjectives in some of their uses.

In English dictionaries, which typically still do not treat determiners as their own part of speech, determiners are often recognizable by being listed both as adjectives and as pronouns.

Determiners are words that are neither nouns nor pronouns, yet reference a thing already in context. Determiners generally do this by indicating definiteness as in a vs. Adjective phrase An adjective acts as the head of an adjective phrase or adjectival phrase AP. In the simplest case, an adjective phrase consists solely of the adjective; more complex adjective phrases may contain one or more adverbs modifying the adjective "very strong" , or one or more complements such as "worth several dollars", "full of toys", or "eager to please".

In English, attributive adjective phrases that include complements typically follow the noun that they qualify "an evildoer devoid of redeeming qualities". Other modifiers of nouns[ edit ] In many languages, including English, it is possible for nouns to modify other nouns.

Unlike adjectives, nouns acting as modifiers called attributive nouns or noun adjuncts usually are not predicative; a beautiful park is beautiful, but a car park is not "car". The modifier often indicates origin "Virginia reel" , purpose "work clothes" , semantic patient "man eater" or semantic subject "child actor" ; however, it may generally indicate almost any semantic relationship.

It is also common for adjectives to be derived from nouns, as in boyish, birdlike, behavioral behavioural , famous, manly, angelic, and so on. Many languages have special verbal forms called participles that can act as noun modifiers alone or as the head of a phrase. Sometimes participles develop into pure adjectives. Examples of this in English include relieved the past participle of the verb relieve, used as an adjective in sentences such as "I am so relieved to see you" , spoken as in "the spoken word" , and going the present participle of the verb go, used as an adjective in such phrases as "the going rate".

Some nouns can also take complements such as content clauses as in "the idea that I would do that" , but these are not commonly considered modifiers. For more information about possible modifiers and dependents of nouns, see Components of noun phrases. Order[ edit ] In many languages, attributive adjectives usually occur in a specific order.

In general, the adjective order in English can be summarised as: French, volcanic, extraterrestrial Material denominal adjectives denoting what something is made of e. So, one would say "One quantity nice opinion little size old age round shape [or round old] white color brick material house. Other languages, such as Tagalog , follow their adjectival orders as rigidly as English. The normal adjectival order of English may be overridden in certain circumstances, especially when one adjective is being fronted.

In addition, the usual order of adjectives in English would result in the phrase "the bad big wolf" opinion before size , but instead the usual phrase is "the big bad wolf", perhaps because the ablaut reduplication rule that high vowels precede low vowels overrides the normal order of adjectives. Owing partially to borrowings from French, English has some adjectives that follow the noun as postmodifiers , called postpositive adjectives , as in time immemorial and attorney general.

Adjectives may even change meaning depending on whether they precede or follow, as in proper: They live in a proper town a real town, not a village vs. They live in the town proper in the town itself, not in the suburbs. All adjectives can follow nouns in certain constructions, such as tell me something new. Comparison grammar and Comparative In many languages, some adjectives are comparable. For example, a person may be "polite", but another person may be "more polite", and a third person may be the "most polite" of the three.

The word "more" here modifies the adjective "polite" to indicate a comparison is being made, and "most" modifies the adjective to indicate an absolute comparison a superlative. Among languages that allow adjectives to be compared, different means are used to indicate comparison. Some languages do not distinguish between comparative and superlative forms. In English, many adjectives can take the suffixes "-er" and "-est" sometimes requiring additional letters before the suffix; see forms for far below to indicate the comparative and superlative forms, respectively:


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Total 3 comments.
#1 09.12.2018 в 12:47 Tkc:
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#2 18.12.2018 в 08:48 Thenewking:
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#3 28.12.2018 в 07:22 Amidesherfe:
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