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Shoshone FallsShoshone Falls, southern Idaho. Acp Relief and drainage Parts of four major physiographic provinces are included within Idaho: Peaks reaching elevations between 10, and 12, feet 3, and 3, metres are common in central Idaho.

Other notable ranges in this part of the state include the Sawtooth, Pioneer, Continental Divide, Beaverhead, and Bitterroot. Peak elevations generally decrease northward to about 6, feet 1, metres at the Canadian border.

Borah PeakBorah Peak, Idaho. Blackfoot RiverBlackfoot River, southeastern Idaho. The area comprises several ranges that trend north-south and northwest-southeast and rise to between 7, and 10, feet 2, and 3, metres.

Grass- and sagebrush-covered plateaus and valleys and a few small lakes are found between the ranges. The Basin and Range Province extends into southeastern Idaho as a roughly triangular-shaped desert with its base along the Idaho-Utah border. A series of low north—south-trending block-faulted ranges separate small gravel-floored basins.

The remainder of the state is included within the Columbia Basin, which in Idaho is occupied entirely by the arid Snake River plateau. The Snake River follows the plateau in a broad crescent across southern and western Idaho. Next to the Northern Rocky Mountains, it is the major natural feature of the state. Its valley is a geologically complex sequence of lakes, lava beds, mesas, buttes, canyons, and desertscape, symbolized by the barren craters and cones of the Craters of the Moon National Monument.

In general, as elevation increases, precipitation increases and mean temperatures drop. On a different scale, the high mountains in eastern Idaho tend to hold back the cold winter air that predominates in Montana and Wyoming, giving the state higher mean temperatures than are found at the same latitude and elevation in those states and in more mid-continental locations.

Idaho is situated in the rain shadow of mountains to the west in Washington and Oregon, and only the higher elevations receive adequate amounts of precipitation. Most of the Snake River plateau receives less than 10 inches mm of precipitation annually, making it the driest part of the state. At the other extreme, large sections of the Northern Rockies record annual totals of more than 50 inches 1, mm of precipitation, much of it in the form of snow.

Plant and animal life Idaho is home to numerous bird , mammal , fish , amphibian , and reptile species. Vast evergreen forests cover nearly two-fifths of the state, largely the mountainous terrain. Western white pine , white fir and other true firs, and Douglas fir predominate in northern forests, while Douglas fir , lodgepole pine, and ponderosa pine dominate the southern forests.

Aspen , maple , willow , birch , and mountain ash often carpet the lower slopes of higher mountains, especially in the north. National Park Service Idaho is one of the few states in which grizzly bears and gray wolves roam free, though in small numbers.

Idaho is known for its wilderness areas and for its cold-water fish populations. Fishing for trout, including the Kamloops Kootenai and steelhead varieties, takes place on many of the thousands of miles of rivers and streams in the state. Some of the most remote mountainous country in the United States—the Frank Church River of No Return, Selway-Bitterroot, and Gospel Hump wilderness areas—constitutes the heart of Idaho and the largest contiguous wilderness area in the conterminous 48 states. These wilderness areas and adjacent forested lands provide hunting for elk, Rocky Mountain goats, bighorn sheep , and mule deer.

Idaho is also one of the few states in which there are large numbers of sage grouse and sharp-tailed grouse. People Population composition More than nine-tenths of the population is of European descent white , and most people trace their ancestry to the United Kingdom, Germany, Ireland, France, Italy, or Poland.

Hispanics constitute almost one-tenth of the population. Merrill Humberg Nearly half of Idahoans are church members, and about one-third of them are Mormons , a group that has been prominent since the earliest days of settlement by non-Native Americans. The next largest denominational groups are Roman Catholic, Methodist, and Presbyterian. The proximity to Mormon headquarters in Salt Lake City has resulted in strong religious ties to Utah, and the populations of some of the cities in the southeastern part of the state are more than nine-tenths Mormon.

For many years writers and politicians consistently referred to the division of Idaho into two regions: A more accurate view of regionalism in the state, however, takes into account the trading and marketing centres, resulting in regions that sometimes cross state boundaries.

According to this view, the regions are Lewiston and Spokane , Wash. Agriculture continues its dominance to the west as far as the Boise Valley. The Palouse and Camas prairies are primarily agricultural, while the Lewiston area is industrial and service-oriented.

Most of the immigration comes from the Western, North Central, and Southern states, whereas the bulk of emigration goes to the West. California is the largest source of new residents. Industrial expansion replaced dependence on agriculture, lumbering, and mining in the 20th century, when Idaho also emerged as one of the top states in tourist income.

Idaho has some of the richest agricultural land in the United States, especially the irrigated region of the Snake River plain. Wheat, lentils, barley, oats, sugar beets, peas, beans, and alfalfa seed are also important sources of farm income.

The primary commercial trees are Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and western white pine. Department of Agriculture Image Number: K Potato harvesting in the Snake River valley, Idaho. Likewise, although the land contains dozens of gemstone varieties, notably opal and garnet, gemstone mining is not carried out on an economically significant scale. Phosphate mining and processing is important in the southeast. The Idaho National Laboratory formerly the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory , in the desert near Arco, operated primarily as a research and testing site for nuclear reactors by the federal government, also is used for energy production and serves as a nuclear waste repository.

Department of Energy Manufacturing Value added by manufacturing exceeds the contributions of agriculture to the economy. Most of it is related to the processing of foods and forest and mining products, however, indicating how dependent the economy remains on primary products. Other industries include the manufacture of electronics and industrial machinery, food processing , and printing and publishing.

Sun Valley attracts thousands of visitors annually, notably skiers. Labour, except in agriculture and small business, is heavily organized. Transportation The wilderness and the mountains have made transportation difficult. Idaho has only one major highway connecting the southern and northern parts of the state. Almost all interstate highways that pass through the state run from east to west. Several interstate or transcontinental freight railroads cross the panhandle, and one serves the southern portion.

An Amtrak passenger train route crosses the northern panhandle. Geographic conditions influence air travel as well, with many small airfields providing service to remote areas. These airfields are used largely by private and contract fliers. The main commercial airport in the state is at Boise; major airlines also serve airports in some of the smaller cities. Due to slack water that permits oceangoing barges to dock at Lewiston, the city is an important industrial and shipping centre.

The constitution is detailed and includes many provisions that are ordinarily found in statutory law; it has been amended more than times. Women achieved the right to vote in , making Idaho one of the first states in the country to extend suffrage to female citizens. Administrative reorganization after World War I consolidated these agencies in an effort to make them democratically responsive.

The Great Depression of the s brought about the creation of dozens of new commissions and boards, however, and the growth continued thereafter. In the state government was again reorganized. The executive branch consists of the governor and six other elected officers lieutenant governor, attorney general , controller, secretary of state, superintendent of public instruction, and treasurer as well as a number of departments, boards, commissions and other agencies.

The governor and other executive officials are elected to unlimited four-year terms. The bicameral legislature , which meets annually, comprises a Senate and a House of Representatives; both senators and representatives serve two-year terms. The district courts may originate cases and hear appeals. The various geographic regions have tended to display distinct voting patterns.

The rural south-central and southeastern sections are politically conservative; the southwestern section, with the university towns of Boise and Moscow and the wealthy towns of Hailey and Sun Valley, is broadly centrist. The voters have chosen Republican congressional candidates much of the time; the election of conservative Democrat Walt Minnick in gave Idaho its first Democratic U. Voting in presidential elections has trended heavily in favour of Republicans.

Since a majority of voters has only once voted for a Democratic presidential candidate—in , when Lyndon B. Johnson won Idaho over Republican challenger Barry M. Goldwater by a margin of less than 1 percent. In the presidential election John McCain , the Republican candidate, earned 61 percent of the vote. The Republicans have also tended to control the state legislature. The governorship, except between the early s and the mids, has more often been won by Republicans than Democrats. The preprimary party convention has been replaced by open primaries.

Idaho has more than 1, units of local government, including counties, municipalities, school districts, and special-purpose districts, the last having limited taxing power. Most activities of local government are carried on by counties and cities. County commissioners, with a combination of legislative and executive functions, are very powerful. Health and welfare Although the electorate of Idaho is generally conservative on economic matters, allocations for social and educational programs are liberal and are endorsed by both political parties.

Nearly one-fifth of the state tax revenues goes into public health and public assistance programs. In addition, notable achievements have been based on a sense of social ethics , including a superior civil rights law. Living standards are relatively high because labour contracts follow national patterns, and living costs are below those of many states. Idaho has several health districts that provide public health care throughout the state.

Although Idaho has a low ratio of physicians to population and many rural hospitals find it difficult to remain open, the range of health services is comparable to that found in most U. All of the major cities have high-quality hospitals and private medical services.

The state Board of Education, dating from , supervises appropriated funds, teacher certification, and related functions. The junior college system began on a district basis in and became a state function in The University of Idaho has taken a leading role in developing programs in music, art, architecture, creative writing, and theatre.

Other institutions of higher learning have also developed strong fine arts programs.

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